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APPM text

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Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts (APPM)

2nd edition

Chicago : Society of American Archivists, 1989




(pp. 3-6)





0.1. These rules are intended for use in the construction of catalogs by archival repositories, or by libraries or other institutions that wish to provide archivally oriented cataloging for materials that may be among their holdings. (FN1)


0.2.    Research use of archival materials, one of the primary reasons for their preservation, depends upon access to information about them. These rules have been written to permit the integration of information about archival materials with information about other research resources in bibliographic systems. The rules therefore provide guidance for archival cataloging within the general structure and approach of Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed. (AACR 2). This manual is intended to replace chapter 4 of AACR 2 for repositories that wish to emphasize aspects of archival control over bibliographic control in their cataloging (see 0.8 below).


0.3.    These rules cover description of the provenance, scope, content, and form of archival material, regardless of physical medium. Terms such as archival material, collection, and archival series are used throughout to refer to either textual or nontextual material. However, for item level description, the rules are textually oriented. This manual may be used for item description of nontextual material, but such material may be better accommodated using other manuals (see 1.0A).


0.4.    These rules cover the choice of access points and the forms of headings for names of persons, names of corporate bodies, geographic names, and uniform titles used as access points.


0.5.    These rules do not cover either the choice or form of other types of access points (e.g. topical subject, form or genre, function).


0.6.    These rules generally do not cover the description of archival management actions (e.g., appraisal, processing, preservation, reference), although the results of those actions may be reflected in the bibliographic descriptions created according to the rules. Information about management actions, although an important aspect of archival control, is presumed to be subject to the requirements of individual repositories. (FN2)




0.7.    An archival catalog may be only one part of a more complex institutional descriptive system, which may include several other types of finding aids (e.g., registers, inventories, calendars, indexes, and shelf and container lists).(FN3) In such a system, a catalog record created according to these rules is usually a summary or abstract of information contained in other finding aids, which in turn contain summaries, abstracts, or lists based on information found in the archival materials themselves. There is no requirement, however, that an archival catalog record be an abstract of a more substantial finding aid. The finding aid and the catalog record may be equivalent when the nature of the materials and repository policy dictate a summary approach to description of individual collections or entire holdings.




0.8.    Archival description or cataloging, as prescribed in this manual, is based on certain assumptions about the nature of archival materials and the way archivists manage them.


1)      Their significance is heavily dependent on the context of their creation, i.e., their provenance.

2)      They most often exist in groups or collectivities and are managed at the collective level.

3)      They are often unique, generally “unpublished,” usually generated as documentary byproducts of certain kinds of human activity.


With these assumptions as background, a cataloger would use this manual to create a record that exemplifies archival control, rather than bibliographic control, over the materials described. The process of archival cataloging consists predominantly of interpreting, extrapolating, or extracting information from the material and its context. (FN4)


0.9.    Provenance. Archival materials are created as the natural byproduct, or record, of the activities or functions of persons or corporate bodies. Such materials are often said to be generated organically. The arrangement and description of these materials according to their original function or purpose (often known as respect du fonds) is a fundamental principle of modern archival science. Respect for the original provenance of archival materials guarantees their essential integrity and historical accuracy and also preserves the evidential value inherent in the original grouping and ordering of materials. In some cases, however, archivists also deal with artificial gatherings or collections that have been assembled by others without regard for the provenance or origin of individual pieces. The intent of the collector, often reflected in a focus or theme, may provide contextual meaning for the pieces.


Effect on cataloging rules: Guidelines for choice of entry reflect the relationship between archival provenance and responsibility; thus rules for entry under corporate name, especially, are different from those in AACR 2. The rules also provide for the following important notes: biographical or historical sketches concerning the creator (personal or corporate) of the materials; substantial scope and content analysis; organization and arrangement; and custodial history and source(s) of acquisition.


0.10.  Collective description. This manual approaches the problem of archival cataloging principally at the collection level for two reasons:


1) Collection level description supports the principles of archival unity.

    These principles assume that in most organically generated collections the significance of the individual component (subseries, file, document, etc.) lies primarily in its relation to the collective whole. The significance of the whole derives from interrelationships among its components. Emphasis on individual components at the expense of the whole collection may tend to obscure the intrinsic importance of the whole.


2) Collection level description is practical.

     With modern archival collections consisting of tens and hundreds of thousands of items, an item level approach would impose overwhelming cataloging burdens. Most archivists believe that comprehensive summary control of their holdings at the collection level is preferable to detailed control of only a part.


Effect on cataloging rules: Rules reflect the fact that the cataloger almost always must supply a title for a collection, and that a collection’s inclusive dates are considered an integral part of its title. Supplied titles are not enclosed in square brackets. Rules for physical description allow expression of the amount of space (linear or cubic feet) or number of containers occupied by a collection, as well as expression of the number of physical pieces in a collection.


0.11.“Unpublished” material. Whether an unselfconscious byproduct of human activity or a “work” of conscious accumulation or documentation, an archival collection generally lacks the formally presented identifying data that characterize most published items, such as author and title statements, imprints, production and distribution information, collation, etc. Personal or corporate responsibility for the creation of archival materials (another way of saying provenance) is generally inferred from, rather than explicitly stated in the materials. Titles are supplied rather than transcribed by the cataloger. If there is a practical equivalent to the bibliographic title page, it is the archival finding aid (of the inventory or register type), which is based on analysis of the collection itself, on accession records, and on reference sources.


Effect on cataloging rules. The concepts of “chief source of information” and “prescribed source of information” that guide bibliographic cataloging must be applied to different sources in archival cataloging. Rules concerning date, edition, and title reflect the fact that this information is not normally available for literal transcription.




0.12.  There may be several appropriate levels of description for any given body of archival material. These levels normally correspond to natural divisions based on provenance or physical form. The principle corresponds with the bibliographic concept of analysis, “the process of preparing a bibliographic record that describes a part or parts of an item for which a comprehensive entry has been made.” (FN5) Description of an archival subunit is done within the context of a hierarchically superior unit—for which a comprehensive entry has been made—so that a folder level record will refer to and clearly be subordinate to the record for the subseries of which it is a part, the subseries record to the series record, and so on.(FN6) What is important is that, for any particular body of archival material, there should be a record at the most comprehensive level if there are to be additional records at any subordinate level.


0.13.  These rules may be used for description at any level where the objective is to provide access through separate catalog records. The intent is to give archival catalog records a consistent format at every level, from the most comprehensive to the smallest component. The choice of level(s) appropriate to individual collections or entire repository holdings must be made by each repository based on its own internal needs.



FN 1. The term repository will be used throughout to mean any institution holding archival material.

FN 2. Continuing experiments in sharing appraisal data may in the future provide both the rationale and agreement on common practice required for standardization of description in this area.

FN 3. Although this manual does not directly address questions relating to the standard practices of arrangement and description which produce these finding aids, a clear understanding of the proper context and relationship of cataloging to these practices is fundamental and inherent in all the rules that follow. For more information regarding these practices, see Frederic Miller, Arranging and Describing Archives (working title) to be published by the Society of American Archivists in 1990.

FN 4. By contrast, a bibliographic approach is characterized by item oriented cataloging to provide a description, usually of a published item, as a physical entity. The cataloging process consists predominantly of transcribing information that appears on or with the item.

FN 5. AACR 2 rule 13.1A.

FN 6. The number of levels in such a hierarchy is not prescribed. Archivists following the National Archives model may refer to a five-level hierarchy (from most comprehensive to least): record group, subgroup, series, subseries, file unit (e.g., folder). Others may use a different sequence of terms for a similar hierarchy (from most comprehensive to least): collection, series, subseries, file unit (e.g. folder), document or item.



Chapter 1

(pp. 7-31)


Description of Archival Material




1.0       General Rules

            1.0A    Scope

            1.0B     Sources of information

            1.0C    Punctuation

            1.0D    Levels of detail in the description

            1.0E     Language and script of the description

            1.0F     Inaccuracies and extrapolations

            1.0G    Accents and other diacritical marks


1.1              Title and Statement of Responsibility Area


1.1A    Preliminary rule

1.1B     Title proper

1.1C    General material designation

1.1D    Parallel titles

1.1E     Other title information

1.1F     Statements of responsibility

1.1G    Items without a collective title


1.2       Edition Area


1.2A    Preliminary rule

1.2B     Edition statement

1.2C    Statements of responsibility relating to the edition


1.3       Material (or Type of Publication) Specific Detail Area*


1.4              Date Area*


1.5              Physical Description Area


1.5A    Preliminary rule

1.5B     Statement of extent

1.5C    Other physical details

1.5D    Dimensions


1.6       Series Area*


*   Not defined for archival usage


1.7       Note Area

1.7A    Preliminary rule

1.7B     Notes

1.7B1               Biographical/Historical

1.7B2               Scope and content/Abstract

1.7B3               Linking entry complexity

1.7B4               Additional physical form available

1.7B5               Reproduction

1.7B6               Location of originals/duplicates

1.7B7               Organization and arrangement

1.7B8               Language

1.7B9               Provenance

1.7B10             Immediate source of acquisition

1.7B11             Restrictions on access

1.7B12             Terms governing use and reproduction

1.7B13             Cumulative index/Finding aids

1.7B14             Citation

1.7B15             Preferred citation of described materials

1.7B16             Publications

1.7B17             General note


1.0              General Rules


1.0A.  Scope. The rules in this chapter cover the description of archival materials (as defined in the introduction), regardless of physical form or medium. Such materials may consist of collections, single manuscripts, or archival record groups and record series as described below.(FN1)


            Manuscript/Document.  Any text in handwriting or typescript (including printed forms completed by hand or typewriter) which may or may not be part of a collection of such texts. Examples of  manuscripts and documents are letters, diaries, ledgers, minutes, speeches, marked or corrected galley or page proofs, manuscript books, and legal papers. For the purpose of this manual, these materials may exist in original handwritten or typescript form, letter-press or carbon copies, or photographic or mechanical reproduction, including photostat, microfilm, or facsimile.


            Series.  File units or documents arranged in accordance with a filing system or maintained as a unit because they related to a particular subject or function, result from the same activity, have a particular form, or because of some other relationship arising out of their creation, receipt, or use. Also known as record series. In archival practice, the series is the usual unit of cataloging or description.


            Collection.  A body of archival material formed by or around a person, family group, corporate body, or subject either from a common source as a natural product of activity or function, or gathered purposefully and artificially without regard to original provenance. In addition to the types of manuscript material listed above, a collection may also contain correspondence, memoranda, photographs, maps, drawings, near-print materials, pamphlets, periodical tear-sheets, broadsides, newspaper clippings, motion picture films, computer files, etc.,


            Record group.  A body of organizationally related archives or records established on the basis of provenance with particular regard for the administrative history, the complexity, and the volume of the records and archives of the institution or organization involved.


`           Archives.  The preserved documentary records of any corporate body, governmental agency or office, or organization or group that are the direct result of administrative or organizational activity of the originating body and that are maintained according to their original provenance.


Alternatively, manuscript cartographic items, manuscript music, certain pre-1600 manuscripts, codices, and nontextual archival materials such as graphics (including photographs), computer files, and motion pictures and videorecordings may be cataloged according to other rules.(FN2) This is true whether or not such materials are part of a larger group of archival materials. In some cases a cataloger may consult other rules manuals for guidance in providing medium-specific detail (particularly in the physical description and note areas) while the description as a whole follows this manual. In other cases, a cataloger may choose to follow other rules for the entire description. Decisions about when to use other rules may be made by the cataloger (or by a repository as a whole) based on the characteristics of a particular body of material, the characteristics of certain types of materials, or the requirements of an individual catalog.


1.0B.  Sources of information


1.0B1.  Chief source of information


The chief source of information for archival materials is the finding aid prepared for those materials. In the absence of this source, treat provenance and accession records, then the materials themselves, supp-lemented by appropriate reference sources, as the chief source of information. For a single item, treat the item itself as the chief source of information. Within a single item, prefer information found on the title page, caption, heading, and colophon (if any). Otherwise, use the text itself, along with its form and content. If the necessary information is not available from any of these sources, take it from the following sources (in this order of preference):


a)      other published or unpublished descriptions of the collection/item

b)      reference sources

c)      another manuscript copy of the collection/item

d)      a published edition of the collection/item

e)      other sources


1.0B2.  Prescribed sources of information


The prescribed source(s) of information for each area of description of archival and manuscript material is set out below.


AREA                                      PRESCRIBED SOURCES OF INFORMATION


Title and statement of    responsibility                 Chief source of information


Date                                                                 Chief source of information


Edition                                                              Chief source of information and manuscript or

                                                                        published copies


Physical description                                          Any source


Notes                                                               Any source


1.0C. Punctuation. Each area or each occurrence of an area will normally begin a new paragraph. Otherwise, precede each area, other than the first area, or each occurrence of a note, area, etc., by a period, space, dash, space (. -- ). (FN3) For the prescribed punctuation of elements within each area, see the following rules.

            Precede each mark of prescribed punctuation by a space and follow it by a space, except for the comma, period, hyphen, and opening and closing parentheses and square brackets. The comma, period, hyphen, and opening and closing parenthesis and square bracket are not preceded by a space; the hyphen and the opening parenthesis and square bracket are not followed by a space.


            Exception.  Do not precede colons used following introductory wording with a space; similarly, do not precede semicolons used as subelement punctuation with a space.


            Indicate an interpolation or extrapolation (i.e., data taken from outside the prescribed source(s) of information) by enclosing it in square brackets ([]). Indicate a conjectural interpolation by adding a question mark within the square brackets. Indicate the omission of part of an element by the mark of omission (…). Precede and follow the mark of omission by a space. Omit any area or element that does not apply in describing an individual item or collection; also omit its prescribed preceding or enclosing punctuation. Do not indicate the omission of an area or element by the mark of omission.


                        [1897 Jan. 21]

                        [1921?] Mar. 3

                        Journaal of dag register van den beginne … , 1780-1784


            When adjacent elements within one area are to be enclosed in square brackets, enclose them in one set of square brackets. See also 1.0F.


                        [1853 Nov. 1, Sumter District, S.C.]


1.0D. Level of detail in the description. The elements of description provided in the rules in this entire chapter constitute a maximum set of information. This particular rule sets out two recommended levels of description and the elements necessary to each level. Archival repositories may choose only the first level, or the first and second, based on the purpose of the catalog or catalogs for which the entry is constructed. Include this minimum set of elements for all items cataloged at the chosen level when the elements are applicable to the unit being described and when, in the case of optional additions, the repository has chosen to include an optional element. Consult individual rules in this chapter for the content of the elements to be included.


1.0D1. First level of detail. This level should include as a minimum: a title statement, with date or inclusive dates; and a statement of quantity or extent. See 1.1B, 1.5, and chapter 2.


[In archival cataloging this would apply primarily to very brief records (e.g., accession-level descriptions). Since few bodies of archival material have a “formal” title and statement of responsibility (i.e. one that can be transcribed from the material), a cataloger must supply a title statement (incorporating the form of mateial) and a statement of extent. The cataloger usually also supplies a main entry (provenance heading). In most USMARC cataloging the only fields that are absolutely required are the title (field 245) and quantity (field 300).]


1.0D2. Second level of detail. For this level, include all the elements set out in the following rules that are applicable to the material being cataloged.


            [Most archival cataloging will be done at this second level of detail.]


1.0E. Language and script of the description. In the title and statement of responsibility area, give informaiton transcribed from the material itself in the language and script (wherever practical) in which it appears there. In all areas prefer the language of the finding aid where the materials it describes are in a different language.

            Replace symbols or other matter that cannot be reproduced by the typographical facilities available with a cataloger’s description in square brackets.

            In general, give interpolations into these areas in the language and script of the other data in the area.


1.0F. Inaccuracies and extrapolations. In an area where transcription from the item is required, transcribe an inaccuracy or a misspelled word as it appears on the material. Supply a missing letter or letters, number or numbers enclosed in square brackets. Likewise with extrapolations and conjectures, supply the missing information enclosed in square brackets and add the abbreviation ca. or a question mark, where appropriate. If a piece of data is being questioned but there is no correction, add a question mark to the data and enclose it in square brackets. See also 1.0C.


            [1857 Jan. 3]

                        (Entire date has been supplied from internal evidence}


            [1864?] Dec. 1

                        (Probable year has been supplied)


            to Mr. [David?] Smith

                        (Forename David is not given and is supplied)


            Charleston, S.C. [?]

                        (Charleston, S.C. is given in the source but is questioned by the cataloger on the

                        basis of other evidence)


If possible, give the correct or properly spelled word directly in the transcription.


            Sop[h]ie’s choice


            Jam[e]s A. Garfield

                        (Appears in ms. as Jams A. Garfield)


            Abra[ha]m Linco[l]n

                        (Appears in ms. as Abram Lincon)


If this is not possible, insert the correction immediately after the incorrect or misspelled word, introduced by i.e.


Pophie’s [i.e., Sophie’s] choice


ALS, 1829 [i.e. 1830] Jan. 4

(Year was incorrectly given on ms.)


Exception: If the correct or properly spelled word is perfectly obvious, or if the questionable word is not clearly wrong (as with colloquial usages) add [sic] after the transcription.


            Frranklin [sic] D. Roosevelt papers


            Sophie’s cherce [sic]


1.0G. Accents and other diacritical marks. Add accents and other diacritical marks that are omitted from data found in the source of information in accordance with the usage of the language used in the context.


1.1.  Title and Statement of Responsibility Area



     1.1A    Preliminary rule

     1.1B     Title proper

     1.1C    General material designation

     1.1D    Parallel titles

     1.1E     Other title information

     1.1F     Statements of responsibility

     1.1G    Items without a collective title


1.1A. Preliminary rule


1.1A1. Punctuation

     For instructions on the use of spaces before and after prescribed punctuation, see 1.0C.

     Precede each parallel title by an equals sign.

     Precede each unit of other title information by a colon.

     Precede the first statement of responsibility by a diagonal slash.

     Precede each subsequent statement of responsibility by a semicolon.


1.1B Title proper


1.1B1.       Formal title. If a single archival item (such as a manuscript of a speech, article, book, or poem) or an archival collection or record series bears a title as a caption, header, etc., consider this a formal title. Record this formal title exactly as to wording, order, and spelling, but not necessarily as to punctuation or capitalization, and add the date (see 1.1B5). Record formal titles of  microforms of manuscript material as above, preferring original titles to titles created in the course of microform publication. In the absence of an original formal title, consider publication title as a formal title.


                 Sophie’s choice, 1979


                 Christian ethics and precepts, 1846-1852



1.1B2.  Supplied titles. Since most archival material lacks a formal bibliographic title, a title statement must usually be supplied by the cataloger. This statement is established either from a previously prepared descriptive inventory or finding aid (if one exists) or from direct examination of the material.  Since these descriptions fall within the definitions under chief and prescribed sources of information (see 1.0B1-1.0B2), do not put titles supplied from these sources in square brackets, except in the case of date(s) actually missing from, or in error on, the material (see 1.1B5)


1.1B3. Name element. Optionally, give the name of the person, family, or corporate body predominantly associated with, or responsible for, the collection or item as part of the title statement, unless the name is more appropriately recorded in the statement of responsibility area (see 1.1F). Give the name in direct order natural language. It may be abbreviated if the full name appears elsewhere in the record. If the collection consists of material of two or more persons or families, use all of the names primarily associated with the creation of the collection in the name element. See examples of titles, following rule 1.1B5.


1.1B4. Form of material. Record a term that most specifically characterizes the form of material in the unit being cataloged.


For individual textual items (FN4) such as literary manuscripts, manuscript volumes (e.g. diaries, journals, orderly books, letter books, account books, ledgers), letters, speeches, sermons, lectures, and legal and financial documents, give the form of material term that is most specific and appropriate for the material cataloging (FN5)







For collections containing a single form of material use an appropriate plural form of material designation.





                 Legal documents

                 Writs of capias ad respondum


     For collections consisting of two specific forms of material, each may be given.


                 Letter and diploma

                 Diaries and drawings


     For collections, record groups, or series containing multiple forms of material, use the following general terms: Papers, for collections of personal papers; Records, for the archives of corporate bodies or groups; Collection or Collection of papers, for any group of material that was formed artificially around a person, subject, or activity and that otherwise lacks integrity and unity of provenance. When such general titles are used, enumerate specific forms of material in a note if desired (see 1.7B2).


                 Records, 1917-1967

                 Papers, 1888-1920

                 Collection, 1787-1826

     If appropriate or desirable, add a descriptive modifying term or phrase (e.g., reflecting function, activity, subject area, location, or theme) to the form of material designation (e.g., Congressional papers, Family papers, North Carolina diaries).


                 Family papers

                 Financial aid files

                 Indenturing committee meeting minutes

                 Drug investigation correspondence

                 Medical history files

                 Autograph collection

                 Drawings of barns

                 Videotapes of campaign speeches

                 Capital equipment inventory computer files


1.1B5. Date. For an archival collection give the inclusive or span dates of the material. For a single item, give the exact date (expressed as year, month, day). (FN6) Always give the date as the last element in the title.


     If the item lacks explicit date information or the information is incomplete and date information must be supplied from internal evidence or from an external source, enclose it in square brackets. (FN7) If the date information is incomplete and the missing components cannot be supplied, use no year, no month, or no day, as appropriate. If no date or approximate date can be established (i.e., if even the century is uncertain) use undated.


     For groups of material subject to continuing additions or accretions, give the inclusive dates as the earliest date of the material followed by a hyphen and ongoing in square brackets.


                 Special charge vouchers, 1940- [ongoing]


     Optionally, add to the inclusive dates of collections or records series, the bulk dates (i.e., the dates for which the materials bulk largest or are most significant), if known. Inclusive dates always take precedence over bulk dates and bulk dates are never entered without inclusive dates. Give the bulk dates in parentheses following the inclusive dates; precede the dates by the word bulk.


                 Papers, 1703-1908 (bulk 1780-1835)



                             EXAMPLES OF TITLES


Personal papers:


                 Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804. [Main entry]

                             Papers, 1703-1908 (bulk 1780-1835)




                 Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804.

                             Alexander Hamilton papers, 1703-1908 (bulk 1780-1835)

                             (Name element: Alexander Hamilton)

                             (Form of material: papers)


                 Flanner, Janet, 1892- [Main entry]

                             Janet Flanner-Solita Solano papers, 1870-1975.


                 Dumont, Henry, 1878-1949. [Main entry]

                             Henry and Nina Webster Dumont papers, 1905-1936.


Family papers:


                 Schramm family. [Main entry]

                             Papers, 1932-1971.


                 Richardson, James Burchell. [Main entry]

                             Family papers, 1803-1910.


                 Short-Harrison-Symmes family papers, 1760-1878. [Main entry under title]


Corporate records:


                 Bollingen Foundation. [Main entry]

                             Records, 1939-1973.




                 Bollingen Foundation. [Main entry]

                             Bollingen Foundation records, 1939-1973.


                                    Records of the Bollingen Foundation, 1939-1973.



United States. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. Examining Division.

                        [Main entry]

                             Records, 1863-1935.


                 Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.). Office of Student Aid.[Main entry]

                             Financial aid files, 1955-1965.


                 New York (State). Supreme Court of Judicature (Albany). [Main entry]

                             Assignments of error, 1837-1847 (bulk 1837-1839, 1844-1847).


                 Minnesota. State Board of Corrections and Charities.

                             Lantern slides of poorhouse, [190-].


                 Alabama. Board of Social Work Examiners.

                             Expired/inactive license computer files, 1977- [ongoing]




                 Porter, John K. (John Kilham), 1819-1892, collector. [Main entry]

                             Autograph collection, 1600-1882.




                 Porter, John K. (John Kilham), 1819-1892, collector. [Main entry]

                             John K. Porter autograph collection, 1600-1882.


                 Purland, Theodosius, collector. [Main entry]

                             Collection of papers on mesmerism, 1842-1854.


                 Harkness collection, 1525-1651. [Main entry under title]


                 Shaker collection, 1792-1937. [Main entry under title]


                 Portuguese manuscripts collection, 1345-1918. [Main entry under title]


                 California travel diaries, 1849-1851. [Main entry under title]



Single form of material collections:


                 Correspondence, 1804-1828.


                 Diaries, [1897?]-1915.


Single manuscripts:


                 Logbook, 1818-[ca. 1823].


                 Ebenezer Sprout-William Shepard orderly book, 1779-1780.


                 Diary, 1789 Jan. 1-1791 Mar. 17.


                 Sutherland, Alan D., 1897- interviewee. [Main entry]

                             Typewritten transcript of oral history interview : Brattleboro, Vt., with John Duffy and Martin Kaufman, 1968 June 15.


1.1C. General material designation


1.1C1. Optionally, in a mixed catalog, add, immediately following the title proper, the appropriate general material designation (e.g. computer file, manuscript, microform, motion picture, picture, sound recording, videorecording). For the use of other general material designations, see AACR 2 rule 1.1C1. General material designations are always enclosed in square brackets.


1.1D. Parallel rules


1.1D1. For the purposes of this manual, a parallel title shall be defined as a title proper appearing in another language or script on an archival item that has an identifiable title page or its equivalent. Record any parallel titles in the order indicated by their sequence on, or by the layout of, the title page.


                 Twenty love poems and a song of despair = 20 poemas de amor y una cancion desesperada, 1976


1.1E. Other title information.


1.1E1. Record any title information, other than title proper or parallel titles, appearing on material. This may include subtitles and phrases appearing in conjunction with the title proper or parallel titles indicating the character, contents, etc., of the material or the occasion and/or motive for its production. For single items this may also include place of writing or delivery, addressee, and place to which written. Record other title information following any title proper, parallel title, form title, etc., and before the date(s).


                 Lecture : Royal College of Medicine, London, [18--]


                 Letter : Dublin, to Henrik Ibsen, Kristiania [Oslo], 1901 Mar. 6


                 ALS : Worcester Park, Surrey, to George Gissing, Rome, [ca. 1898 Jan. 1]


                 Holograph petition : to James Monroe, 1813 July 1


     When an item or collection has a formal or traditional title, add any form of material information required to make the form and/or nature of the material clear. Punctuate this information as other title information (see also 1.1E). Make this addition after any subtitles or other information.


                 Sophie’s choice : holograph, 1979


                 Diamond Lil : playscript, 1928


                 Christian ethics and precepts : commonplace book, 1846-1852


                 The need of redirected rural schools : address before the Iowa State Teachers

                             Association, Des Moines : typescript, 1910 Oct. 4


1.1F. Statements of responsibility. Record an explicit statement of responsibility appearing in conjunction with a formal title on the title page of a single manuscript in the form in which it appears there. Do not use the statement of responsibility for collections of manuscripts or archival records or the signers of letters or other documents.


                 The charity ball : a comedy in four acts : typescript, 1889 / by David Belasco and

                             Henry C. DeMille


                 Divorce : holograph, [187-?] / by Augustin Daly


     [Statements of responsibility are used infrequently in archival cataloging, since they seldom exist in collections of material or individual letters or documents, and, according to AACR 2 rule 1.1F2, must not be constructed nor extracted in the absence of a prominent statement in the item.]


1.1G. Items without a collective title. If two or more manuscripts with formal titles are bound together, form a recognized collection, or are otherwise associated for cataloging purposes and lack a collective formal title, apply the rules for supplying titles to collections as outlined under 1.1B2-1.1B5.






1.2A                     Preliminary rule

1.2B                      Edition statement

1.2C                     Statements of responsibility relating to the edition


1.2A. Preliminary rule


1.2A1. Scope. Use this area in item level description to record statements relating to versions of manuscript works existing in two or more versions or states in single or multiple copies. Examples are different manuscript drafts of a work and filmscripts existing in various versions.


1.1A2. Punctuation.


                 For instructions on the use of spaces before or after prescribed punctuation, see 1.0C.

                 Precede this area by a period, space, dash, space (. --).

                 Precede the first statement of responsibility following an edition statement by a diagonal slash.

                 Precede each subsequent statement of responsibility by a semicolon.


1.2B. Edition statement


1.2B1. Transcribe a statement relating to a version of a manuscript that is different from other versions, or that is a named revision, as found on the item. Use standard abbreviations (see AACR 2, Appendix B) and numerals in place of words (see AACR 2, Appendix C).


                 Prelim. draft

                 1st script

                 2nd draft continuity

                 Estimating script


1.2B2. In case of doubt as to whether a statement is an edition statement, do not treat it as such.

p. 19

1.2B3. Optional addition. If an item lacks an edition statement but is known to contain significant changes from previous versions, supply a suitable brief statement in the language and script of the title proper and enclose it in square brackets.


                 [2nd draft]

                 [3. Konzept]


                 [Mar. 1970 draft]

                 [Rev. screenplay]


1.2C.  Statements of responsibility relating to the edition


1.2C1.  Record a statement of responsibility relating to one or more versions but not to all versions as instructed in 1.1F.


                 Continuity / written by Waldemar Young

                 3rd draft / edited by Paul Watson


1.2C2.  In case of doubt about whether a statement of responsibility applies to all versions/editions or only to some, or if there is no edition statement, give such a statement in the title and statement of responsibility area.





This area is not defined for archival materials.




This area is not defined for archival cataloging. Include the date, inclusive dates, or bulk dates of archival and manuscript material as part of area 1 (see 1.1B5).






1.5A                Preliminary rule

1.5B                 Statement of extent

1.5C                Other physical details

1.5D                Dimensions


1.5A. Preliminary rule


1.5A1. Punctuation


            For information on the use of spaces before and after prescribed punctuation, see 1.0C.


            If this area is not given as a separate paragraph, precede it by a period, space, dash, space (. --).


            Precede other physical details by a colon.


            Precede the dimensions by a semicolon.


1.5B. Statement of extent


1.5B1. Collections of archival material. Give the primary statement of extent of archival material in terms of the number of linear or cubic feet (meters in Canada) occupied, or in terms of the exact or approximate number of items (FN8) (expressed as items, volumes, etc.). If the statement of extent for a collection is given in terms of one unit of measurement and additional information in terms of another unit of measurement is required or desirable, add this additional information in parentheses. Express fractions of linear or cubic feet (or meters) as decimals.


                        87 items (0.5 linear ft.)

                        ca. 10,200 items (14.7 cubic ft.)


                        14.7 cubic ft. (ca. 10,200 items)


                        128 linear ft.

                        40 cubic meters

                        6 v. (1.5 linear ft.)

                        12 linear ft. (36 boxes)


     If a collection consists of more than one type of material and each is measured in a different way, give separate statements of extent.


                             ca. 1500 items

2 microfilm reels

                                                (The collection consists of ca. 1500 items and 2 microfilm reels)


            Optionally, if separate statements of extent are given and it is desirable to associate each statement of extent with a specific type of material, give the type of material as an introductory word or phrase.


                                    Diaries: 17 v.

                                    Correspondence: 0.5 linear ft.

                                    Architectural drawings: 6 items


If the statement of extent is complex and potentially confusing, explain it in a note.


[Institutional practices vary considerably in expressing extent. What is important is not that all institutions use the same terms in this area, but that the terms chosen are internally consistent and clearly indicate to a potential user the size of the collection.]


1.5B2. Single manuscripts. Describe an individual letter, diary, journal, account book, scrapbook, letter book, literary manuscript, etc., as one item, volume, etc.,When known, add in parentheses the number of pages or leaves (whether numbered or not) with text on them or the number or approximate number of items in a volume.


                             1 item (47 p.)

                             1 v. (32 leaves)

                             1 v. (ca. 500 items)


1.5B3.  Microform and other copies of archival material. If a repository holds both the original and microform or digitized copies of material (and it is describing both in the same bibliographic record), the extent is expressed in two separate statements: the extent of the originals (as formulated under 1.5B1) and the extent of the copies (in number of microfilm reels, microfilm cassettes or cartridges, microfiches, aperture cards, microopaques, compact discs, etc., as appropriate).


                             450 items

                             2 microfilm reels


                 Optionally (see also 1.5B1)


                             Originals: 450 items

                             Copies: 2 microfilm reels


     Repositories holding only microform or digitized copies of original archival material held elsewhere should give as the chief statement of extent the number of microfilm reels, microfilm cassettes or cartridges, microfiches, aperture cards, microopaques, compact discs, etc., as appropriate. If the extent of the original material is known (i.e., the number of items, volumes, feet, etc.) give this information in a note (see 1.7B2).


                             123 microfilm reels

                             4 microfiches

                             1 microopaque


     If microfilm is not on a reel, or if the material occupies only part of a reel along with other unrelated material, give the number of feet of microfilm occupied by the material being cataloged if it can be ascertained easily. Otherwise, indicate that the material occupies only part of a reel (e.g. Forms part of a reel, Partial microfilm reel, etc.). If desired, add the number of frames on a single microfiche in parentheses.


3 ft. of microfilm

                                    1 microfilm reel (12 ft.)

                                    1 microfiche (120 frames)


                                    Partial microfilm reel




1.5C.  Other physical details


1.5C1.  Give any other physical details that the repository considers important (e.g., type of paper, the presence of illustrations or maps, or the type of binding). If a microform is negative, give that information.


                                    1 microfilm reel (220 frames) : negative

                                    147 microfilm reels : negative

                                    20 leaves : vellum

                                    6 v. : ill.

                                    1 v. : bound in vellum


1.5D. Dimensions. Optionally, supply the dimensions of items, volumes, or containers according to the following guidelines.



1.5D1. Collections of archival materials. If the size of the items, containers, or volumes given in the statement of extent is uniform, give that size in centimeters. If the size is not uniform, give the size of the largest item, and add “or smaller.” (FN9) Give the size in terms of height. Add the width if it is either less than half the height, or greater than the height. If cubic measurement is needed, add the width and the depth.


                                    6 v. : 30 cm. [Height]

                                    20 items ; 20 x 30 cm. [Height x width]

                                    10 v. ; 28 cm or smaller.

                                    12 linear ft. (28 boxes) ; 26 x 10 x 39 cm. [Height x width x depth]



1.5D2.  Single manuscripts. Give the height of single unbound manuscripts in centimeters to the next whole centimeter up. Add the width if it is less than half the height or greater than the height. If the manuscript is kept folded, add the dimensions when folded.


                                    1 item (6 p.) ; 24 cm. [Height]

                                    1 item (7 p.) ; 24 x 30 cm. [Height x width]

                                    1 item (12 leaves) ; 20 cm. folded to 10 x 12 cm.

                                    1 item (1 leaf) ; parchment ; 35 x 66 cm. folded to 10 x 19 cm.


            Give the height of a bound volume or case in centimeters, to the next whole centimeter. Add the width if it is either less than half the height, or greater than the height.


                                    1 v. (131 leaves in case) ; 26 cm.

                                    1 item (70 p. in case) ; 20 x 24 cm.


1.5D3.  Microforms. Give the size of microopaques and aperture cards as height x width in centimeters. If the dimensions of a microfiche are other than 10.5 x 14.8 cm., give the height x width in centimeters See AACR 2 rule 11.5D3.


            Give the width of a microfilm in millimeters. Optionally, give the width of a microfilm only if it is other than 35 mm.


                                    20 aperture cards ; 9 x 19 cm.

                                    30 microfiches ; 10 x 15 cm.

                                    110 microfilm cassettes : negative ; 16 mm.


                                    1 microfilm reel (28 ft.) ; 16 mm.






This area currently is not defined for archival materials, because of possible confusion arising from archival use of the term “series” (see 1.0A) and common library usage.






1.7A                     Preliminary rule

1.7B                      Notes



1.7A.  Preliminary rule


1.7A1.  Punctuation


            If this area is not given as a separate paragraph, precede it by a period, space, dash, space (. -- ).

            Separate introductory wording from the main content of a note by a colon and a space. (See bold note below.)

            Separate distinct subelements of a note not governed by normal rules of narrative punctuation by a semicolon and a space.


1.7B. Notes.  Make notes as set out in the following subrules.


            [In formatting notes for USMARC catalog records, institutions will need to decide to what purposes the information in the notes ultimately will be put. For example, subelements of most note fields given below translate into equivalent USMARC subfields. If the intention is to sort on these subelements, the note will need to be structured to facilitate that sorting. If, on the other hand, the need is for an eye-readable narrative note, most content designation can be ignored.


            In addition, catalogers need to be aware that there are certain print /display constants inherent in some USMARC fields that are implemented differently in different systems. Where prescribed or recommended introductory wording is generated by a given system implementation, such wording should not be incorporated in the cataloging itself.]


1.7B1. Biographical/Historical.  Record briefly any significant information on the creator/author of the archival material required to make its nature or scope clear. For persons this may include place of birth and domicile, variant names, occupations (if relevant to the materials), and significant accomplishments (if reflected in the materials). Dates of birth and death may also be given here. For corporate bodies, this may include information on the functions, purpose, and history of the body, its administrative hierarchy, and earlier, variant, or successor names. This note may be subdivided into subelements consisting of a brief summary note and an expansion of the note.


            Nurse and leader of the birth control movement.


            Established in the War Department 3 Mar. 1865, to supervise all activities relating to refugees and freedmen and to assume custody of all abandoned or confiscated lands or property. Abolished 10 June 1872, and remaining functions transferred to the Freedman’s Branch, Office of the Adjutant General and after 1879, to the Colored Troops Division of the Office of Adjutant General.


            Historian, of Wilson, Raleigh, and Chapel Hill, N.C.; first archivist of the United States; secretary, North Carolina Historical Commission; professor at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill; and author.


[The purpose of this note is to establish an appropriate context by simply relating the creating entity to the described materials. Elaborate biographical or historical essays are usually not appropriate for a catalog record—although complicated corporate archives may require rather more historical detail.]


1.7B2.  Scope and content/Abstract. Give information relating to the general contents, nature, and scope of the described materials. For archival collections, give (in this order) the specific types and forms of material present, noting the presence of graphic or other nontextual materials such as illustrations, maps, charts, drawings, plans, photographs, sound recordings, or computer files; the dates within which the material bulks largest (if appropriate); when appropriate, the functions or activities resulting in the creation of the records; and the most significant topics, events, persons, places, etc., represented. For collections containing correspondence, if desired list or characterize the most significant correspondents. If desired, also give the inclusive dates and/or extent for each type of material or for subunits within a collection. This note may be divided into subelements consisting of a brief note and an expansion of the note.


            For an individual manuscript, give the form of the item and, for a letter, the recipient (if this information is not already in the title statement). In addition, give the date of delivery of a speech, sermon, etc., if it differs from the date of the manuscript as given in the title. Finally, abstract the contents of the item, giving significant topics, persons, places, events, etc.,mentioned or documented.


                        Correspondence, essays, and notebooks, covering the period when White was serving in the American embassy in Berlin. The papers relate chiefly to U.S. relations with Germany and the rise of Hitler and the Nazi Party, though there is some material relating to Greece in World War I. Correspondents include William E. Dodd, John G. Erhardt, George S. Messersmith, Jay Pierrepont Moffat, William Phillips, and Thomas W. Wilson.


                        Correspondence, diaries (1914-1953), articles, speeches, lectures, clippings, scrapbooks, printed matter, photographs, memorabilia, and organizational records relating to ..[very long note]


                        Records of Commissioner Oliver Otis Howard (1830-1909) and his adjutants, including annual and monthly reports … [very long note]


                        Holograph petition of Burns to James Monroe, secretary of state, to obtain a letter of marque and reprisal for the schooner Snap Dragon, New Bern, N.C.


                        The sound recordings date from 1938 to 1952. Several selections consist of political advertisements for the 1949 mayoral campaign.  Others include a 1951 press conference with an assistant to Marcantonio, Clifford T. McAvoy, who was running for City Council; a political speech given by Marcantonio in 1938 to the Harlem Legislative Committee; a 1943 speech on the downfall of Mussolini; and a 1952 speech given to the American Labor party.


                        Relates to supplies and uniforms for soldiers in the Continental Army.


                        Holograph journal and log kept by Brantz on a voyage (10 Mar.-10 Sept. 1793) aboard the brig Equality from Baltimore around the Cape of Good Hope to the Isle of France (i.e. Mauritius); journal and log of a voyage (11 Dec. 1793-27 Jan. 1794) aboard the ship Chase from the Isle of France to Ascension Island in the South Atlantic; and journal and log of a voyager (27 Jan.-14 July 1794) aboard the brig Equality from Ascension Island to Ostend and from Ostend to Baltimore. Includes meteorological and navigational information in addition to routines of shipboard life.


                        This series consists of computer (floppy disk) files relating to persons with expired/inactive social worker licenses. Each applicant’s file records the name, last known, address, license number, level of license, how licensed, and year initially licensed. An annual printout is generated.


                        This collection consists mainly of letters received by Mary Cox Collins; 274 of the letters are from her husband, with numerous letters from her children.



1.7B3. Linking entry complexity. Make a note concerning any complex hierarchical relationship between catalog records, i.e., when the material being described is a component part or subunit of another collection or series that is an existing bibliographic entity. Using appropriate introductory wording such as Forms part of: (normally used for subunits within larger groups) or In: (normally used for items within larger groups), give the title for the hierarchically superior unit as formulated under the principles outlined in 1.1A-1.1E.


                        Forms part of: Naval Historical Foundation manuscript collection.

                        Forms part of: War Department collection of Confederate records

(Record Group 109).

                        In: Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 1904-1967. Papers, 1927-1967.


1.7B4. Additional physical form available. When the repository has the original and a copy of all or part of the material being described, make a note to record information about the additional (i.e., different) physical format(s) in which the described material is available for use at the holding repository and/or in published form. If the latter, also record availability information (source, order number, condition, etc.). Add appropriate introductory wording to subelements when it is necessary to make the nature and intent of their information clear. See also 1.5B3 for recording extent of originals and copy.


                        Diaries and correspondence available on microfilm for use in repository only.

                        Also available on microfilm; source: Library of Congress Photoduplication Service, Washington D.C. 20540; order no.: 18,447.



1.7B5. Reproduction. Record information that the material being described is a copy of originals that either are located elsewhere or have been destroyed. Record (in order and if available) the type of reproduction, the place of reproduction, the agency responsible for the reproduction, the date of the reproduction, a physical description of the reproduction, and a bibliographic series statement (if appropriate). If the originals have been destroyed after copying or are no longer extant, record this information. Add appropriate introductory wording to subelements when it is necessary to make the nature and intent of the information clear.


                        In part, photocopies. Copied at: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Southern Historical Collection; 1978.


                        Photocopies (negative). Copied at: Archives Nationales, Paris, France; 1937.


                        Microfilm; originals destroyed after filming.


                        Microfilm. Filmed at: Duke University Library, Manuscript Department; filmed

 by: University Publications of America, Inc.; 1987; 5 microfilm reels (nos. 18-

22); series statement: Records of ante-bellum southern plantations, series F,

selections from the Manuscript Department, Duke University Library, part 1.


1.7B6.  Location of originals/duplicates. Record the name and, optionally, the address of repositories, other than the cataloging repository, with custody of the originals or duplicate copies of the described material. Subelements may include the name of the custodian repository, its address, the country of the repository, and its telephone number. Begin the note with appropriate introductory wording (e.g., Originals in: or Photocopies or Transcripts or Microfilm, etc.,in: ).


                        Originals in: Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library, Box 1603A

                                    Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520

                        Originals o diaries in: Manuscript Division, Library of Congress; Washington, D.C. 20540


            [The cataloging of microform and other copies of archival materials has always presented certain problems. With such copies running the gamut from highly individualized selections of material (often made for a specific patron) to full-blown scholarly editions prepared for publication often as part of a publication series (e.g., the Records of ante-bellum southern plantations series illustration given above), the decision on whether and how to record “publication” details has often been difficult. Determinations on whether to catalog such microforms as publications or as archival material will depend on the purposes of the catalog and the needs of the repository for more or less detail and content analysis as part of the description. For those institutions wishing to catalog such material archivally, it is clear that the notes above can accommodate the publication details. (FN 10)



1.7B7. Organization and arrangement.  Record information about the organization and arrangement of the materials being described. Organization relates to the manner in which the materials have been subdivided into smaller units, such as record groups divided into series and series into subseries. Arrangement relates to the pattern of arrangement (e.g. alphabetical, chronological, etc.) of materials within the unit described.


                        Organized into the following series [long note follows]

`                       [all the notes are for archival type collections]


1.7B8.  Language. Make a note concerning the language or languages of the materials being described, unless they are noted elsewhere or are apparent from other elements of the description. Also note any distinctive alphabets or symbol systems employed.


                        In Swedish.

                        In German Fraktur.

                        Chiefly in Russian longhand.

                        English with typewritten French translations.


1.7B9. Provenance.  Make a note concerning the history of the custody of the materials being cataloged. Give information (including dates) on collation and on successive transfers of ownership and custody of the materials.


                        Originally collected by George Madison and arranged by his nephew, John Ferris,

                        after Madison’s death. Purchased by Henry Kapper in 1878 who added to the

                        collection with materials purchased at auctions in Philadelphia and Paris, 1878-



                        Family correspondence originally collected by Henry Fitzhugh … [long note]


                        The Department of Correction placed these records on loan with Syracuse

                        University from 1960 to 1977.


1.7B10. Immediate source of acquisition. Make a note on the donor or source (i.e., the immediate prior custodian) of the material being cataloged and, if desired, give the source’s address. Indicate the manner or method (e.g., gift, purchase, deposit, transfer, etc.) of the acquisition and the date of the acquisition. Optionally, add accession number(s), purchase price, the relation of the source to the material, and other relevant information. For materials acquired from multiple sources, make multiple notes, specifying, if desired, materials received in each acquisition. If the source is unknown, record that information.


                        Gift of Worthington C. Ford, 1907.

                        Source unknown.

                        Purchase, 1978.

                        Deposit, 1903. Converted to gift, 1948.

                        Gift of Mrs. Richard’s daughter, JoAnn C. Richard, 1968.

                        Orderly books: Transfer; Pension Office; 1909.

                        Letter books: Transfer; State Department; 1915.


            [Institutional practices may vary in expressing—or even suppressing—this information in a publicly accessible catalog record. See also the note under 1.7B.]


1.7B11.  Restrictions on access. Record information about any restrictions imposed on access to the materials. Make a note specifying the details of the restriction, including the date when it will be lifted. Additional information may be recorded regarding the jurisdiction (i.e., the person, institution, or position or function through which the terms governing access are imposed, enforced, and may be appealed), physical access provisions, authorized users (i.e. individuals or a class of users to whom the restrictions do not apply) or authorization (i.e. the source of the authority for the restriction). Alternately, simply indicate the fact of the restriction.


                        Access restricted.

                        Closed to investigators until 1999.

                        Family correspondence closed until 2010 or until the death of the donor.

                        Classified under national security provisions; Department of Defense; Title 50, Chapter 401, U.S.C.


1.7B12. Terms governing use and reproduction. Record information about terms governing the use of the materials after access has been provided. This includes, but is not limited to, copyrights, film rights, trade restrictions, etc., that restrict the right to reproduce, exhibit, fictionalize, quote, etc. If the literary rights in materials were dedicated or reserved under previous copyright law, record that information. If the materials were received after 31 December 1977, and if copyright interests have been dedicated or reserved under new copyright law (Title 17, U.S.C.), record that information. Additional information may be added relating to jurisdiction, authorization, or authorized users (see definitions under 1.7B11).


            Information on literary rights available in the repository.

            Literary rights of Carrie Chapman Catt have been dedicated to the public.

            Copyright interests have been reserved.

            Photocopying of diaries is prohibited.


1.7B13. Cumulative index/finding aids. Identify or note the presence of any existing administrative and intellectual controls over the described materials (e.g., registers, inventories, calendars, series descriptions, card catalogs, institutional guides, etc.). If desired, give information regarding the degree of administrative, bibliographic, or physical control reflected in the finding aid and any citations to published or unpublished finding aids.


            Finding aid in the repository; folder level control.

            Card index in the repository.

            Described in: Library of Congress. Manuscript Division. Naval Historical

       Foundation Manuscript Collection: A Catalog. Washington, D.C.: Library of

      Congress, 1974.


1.7B14. Citation. Record a brief bibliographic citation (FN11) or reference to publications (other than finding aids) in which abstracts, citations, descriptions, calendars, or indexes of the described materials have appeared. Include journal articles describing portions of the materials and guides describing the collection in terms of a particular subject focus. Use appropriate introductory wording (e.g. Described in:, Listed in:) in order to clarify the nature of the citation. If desired, give information on the exact location within the source.


            Described in: Library of Congress Acquisitions: Manuscript Division, 1979.

       Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1981.

            Listed in: Ricci. Census, vol. 1, p. 857, no. 4.

            Arctic field notebooks cited in: Day, Harold. “Statistical Methods for Population

        Transport Estimation.” Journal of Ecological Studies 7 (1974): 187.


1.7B15. Preferred citation of described materials. Record the format for the citation of the described material that is preferred by the custodian. Use the introductory phrase Cite as: to introduce the citation form.


            Cite as: James Hazen Hyde Papers, 1891-1941, New-York Historical Society.

            Cite as: Socialist Party of America Records, Manuscript Department, Duke University



1.7B16. Publications. Record a citation to or information about a publication that is based on the use, study, or analysis of the described material (e.g. historical studies, biographies, statistical reports). Citations or references to publications in which the materials have been cited, described, indexed, etc., are recorded in the citation note (see 1.7B14). If necessary, use appropriate introductory wording (e.g. Publications:, Portions published in:) in order to clarify the nature of the citation.


            Publications: Levine, Lawrence W. “William Shakespeare and the American People: A Study in Cultural Transformation.” American Historical Review 89 (February 1984).

            Publications: Poetry: A magazine of Verse 59 (1942): 295-308.

            Photographs published in: Mirer, Emma. Faces of Political Women. Boston: Whitehurst Press, 1984.


1.7B17. General note. Record any other descriptive information considered important but not falling within the definitions of the other notes. This may include information on physical details not given elsewhere, source of title, and title variations.


            Ms. torn in half and rejoined.

            Text heavily foxed.

            Incoming correspondence, 1855-1875, heavily damaged by rodent and insect infestation.

            Title transcribed from spine.

            Also known as: Anglo-Dutch War collection.

            Tape reels transferred from original acetate discs.




FN1     For additional definition of archives and manuscripts terminology, see “A Basic Glossary for Archives, Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers,” by Frank B. Evans and others, American Archivist 37 (July 1974): 415-431. In 1990 the Society of American Archivists plans to publish a new glossary, The Vocabulary of Archives and Manuscripts (working title), compiled by Lewis and Lynn Bellardo.


FN2  For book-like manuscripts (e.g. literary manuscripts and codices) and other manuscript material for which a more bibliographically oriented description may be desirable, see chapter 4 of AACR 2 and Bibliographic Description of Rare Books (Washington, D.C. :  Library of Congress, 1981); for photographs and other graphic material, see chapter 8 of AACR 2 and Elisabeth Betz, Graphic Materials: Rules for Describing Original Items and Historical Collections (Washington, D.C. :  Library of Congress, 1982); for motion pictures and videorecordings, see chapter 7 of AACR 2 and Wendy White-Hensen, Archival Moving Image Materials: A Cataloging Manual (Washington, D.C. [1984]); for maps and cartographic material, see chapter 3 of AACR 2 and Cartographic Materials: A Manual of Interpretation for AACR 2 (Chicago: American Library Association, 1982); for machine-readable and computer files, see chapter 9 of AACR 2, Sue A. Dodd, Cataloging Machine-Readable Data Files (Chicago: American Library Association, 1982); and Sue A. Dodd and Ann M. Sandberg-Fox, Cataloging Microcomputer Files: A Manual of Interpretation for AACR 2 (Chicago: American Library Association, 1985).


FN3. This punctuation follows general ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description) principles. Although there is currently no specific ISBD for archival material, and this punctuation is not customarily followed by archival catalogers, it may be used as a space saving device and to ease integration of archival records with records for printed materials.


FN 4. For cataloging individual nontextual archival items, see the appropriate alternate rules noted above.


FN 5. The following terms and abbreviations may be substituted for letter, document, manuscript, etc., as appropriate:

                 ALS—autograph letter(s) signed (in the hand of the author)

                 LS—letter(s) signed (signature only in the hand of the author)

                 TLS—typed letter(s) signed (by the author)

                 TL—typed letter(s) (lacking handwritten signature)

                 ADS—autograph document(s) signed (by the writer of the text)

                 DS—document(s) signed (signature only in the hand of the author)

                 holograph(s)—manuscript(s) handwritten by the author

                 ms.—any handwritten manuscript

                 mss.—plural of ms.; a group of handwritten manuscripts

                 typescript(s)—typewritten manuscript(s)


For other authorized abbreviations, see AACR 2, Appendix B.


FN 6. For authorized abbreviations of months, see AACR 2, Appendix B.


FN 7. Guidelines for recording probable and uncertain dates:


                 [1892?]                                                Probable date

                 [ca. 1892]                                            Approximate date

                 [not before 1875]                                 Terminal date

                 [not after 1916 July 16]                        Terminal date

                 [1814 or 1815]                                                One year or the other

                 [between 1906 and 1913]                    Use only for dates less than 20 years apart

                 [189-]                                                  Decade certain

                 [189-?]                                                            Decade uncertain

                 [18--]                                                   Century certain

                 [18--?]                                                 Century uncertain


FN 8. Items are defined here as intellectual entities, e.g., a letter is one item, a 600-page manuscript is one item, 12 poems on 7 leaves is 12 items, etc.


FN 9.  Do not confuse statements of extent with dimensions. The linear or cubic footage of a collection or records series is an expression of its overall extent. Dimensions relate only to the size of the containers in which the materials are stored.


FN10. For a fuller discussion of these issues, see Weber, Lisa B., “Describing Microforms and the MARC Format,” Archival Informatics Newsletter 1 (Summer 1987): 9-13.


FN 11.  Citations given in rules 1.7B13, 1.7B14, and 1.7B16 follow bibliographic forms recommended in the Chicago Manual of Style, 13th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982). Repositories may wish to use other forms based on alternate recommendations in Chicago Manual of Style or in AACR 2 (e.g. rule 1.7A4).




Examples of records from Appendix I

(p. 145)


NOTE FROM LIZ O’KEEFE: I’ve transcribed the only records that describe non-archival collections (there are no records for a single bibliographic item that is also a single physical item)


100  1_ $a Bissell, Kenneth McLeod, $d 1884-1972.

245  00 $a Four years at Yale : $k diaries, $f 1903 Sept. 16-1907 Oct. 5.

300  __ $a 4 $f v.

545  __ $a Student, Yale University class of 1907.

520  8_ $a Detailed account of the academic, social, cultural, and athletic life at Yale

                  University; also contains accounts of summer vacations and a trip to Europe in the

                   Summer of 1906 and statistical data on the class of 1907.

541  __ $a Gift of Mr. Bissell, $d 1956.

500  __ $a Title transcribed from spine.



100  1_ $a Knox, Henry, $d 1750-1806.

245  00 $a Letters : $b Charleston, [S.C], to Paul Hyacinth Perrault, $f 1794 July 9,

                        1794 Dec. 31.

     300  __ $a 2 $f items.

     520  8_ $a Relates to staff and expenses for the job of fortification of the port and harbor of

                          Charleston, S.C.





















































































































































































































































































































































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